As an important nanofluidic device, an artificial ion nanochannel could selectively transport ions inside its nanoconfinement space and the surface charge of the pore wall. Here, confinement effects were realized by tandem nanochannel units, which kept their cascade gaps less than 500 nm. Within these gaps, ionic conductance was governed by the surface charge density of the channel unit. Cations could be sufficiently selected and enriched within this confined space, which improves the cation transfer number of the system. Therefore, the tandem nanochannel system could greatly improve the diffusion potential and energy conversion efficiency in the salinity gradient power generation process. Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations were introduced to numerically simulate the ionic transport behavior and confirmed the experimental results. Finally, the gap confinement effect was introduced in the porous cellulose acetate membrane tandem nanochannel system, and a high output power density of 4.72 W/m2 and energy conversion efficiency of 42.22% were achieved under stacking seven channel units.