• Current: Capturing energy from tidal channels, ocean currents, or rivers. 
    • Axial Flow Turbine: Water flows parallel to the device's axis of rotation. 
    • Cross Flow Turbine: Water flows perpendicular to the device's axis of rotation.
    • Oscillating Hydrofoil: Water induces oscillating translation of hydrodynamic surface.
    • Kite: A device that 'flies' in the tidal stream, swooping in a figure-eight shape.
    • Archimedes Screw: A helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft.
    • Vortex-Induced Vibration: Constant water flow applied to a rounded object will cause vibrations.
    • Tidal: Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations using turbines, tidal barrages, or tidal lagoons.
    • Ocean Current: Capturing energy from ocean currents.
    • Riverine: Capturing energy from river currents.
  • Wave: Capturing energy from waves. 
    • Attenuator: Floating device that operates parallel to the wave direction.
    • Oscillating Water Column: Hollow structure that uses wave action to compress air through a turbine.
    • Overtopping: Storage reservoir filled by breaking waves that exit through turbines.
    • Oscillating Wave Surge Converter: Pendulum that oscillates as waves pass by.
    • Point Absorber: Device that absorbs energy from the relative motion between a wave-activated, moving body and a fixed structure.
    • Pressure Differential: Submerged or semi-submerged devices that use differences in pressure to generate electricity.
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Capturing energy using temperature gradients across water depths.
    • Closed-Cycle: An OTEC system in which working fluid with a low-boiling point is circulated.
    • Open-Cycle: An OTEC system in which warm, surface seawater is the working fluid.
    • Hybrid-Cycle: An OTEC system in which both seawater and a working fluid are circulated. 
  • Salinity Gradient: Capturing energy using salinity gradients where freshwater meets seawater. 
    • Pressure-Retarded Osmosis: Salinity gradient technology in which osmotic pressure is used to generate electricity. 
    • Reverse Electrodialysis: Salinity gradient technology in which cation and anion exchange membranes are used to create a "salt battery".

    Collection Method

    • Field Data: Data collected in a real-world scenario.
    • Lab Data: Data collected in a laboratory setting.
    • Modeling: A system or device that is modeled. 
    • Test Center: Data collected at an established test center. 
    • Full Scale: Devices deployed or modeled at full scale. 
    • Scale Device: Device deployed or modeled at smaller than full scale. 


    • Extreme Events: Events such as hurricanes, storms, rogue waves, and tsunamis. 
    • Instrumentation: Instruments placed around the device to monitor it or its effects. 
    • Site Characterization: Surveying a potential site for bathymetry, energy potential, etc. 


    • Acoustics: Analysis or measurement of the noise made by a device.
    • Array Effects: Impacts of multiple devices deployed together or their interaction.
    • Control: Design of control system of a device to optimize electricity generation, minimize stall, etc.
    • Grid Integration: How devices integrate with the electrical grid, including storage.
    • Hybrid Devices: Devices collecting energy from multiple sources (e.g., wind and wave).
    • Hydrodynamics: Interactions between fluids and device structures.
    • Materials: The substances from which a device is made.
    • Mooring: Cables and anchors that hold a device in place.
    • Performance: Analysis of device performance in various conditions or operating modes.
    • Power Take Off: Design of device system to convert absorbed energy into a usable form.
    • Structural: Structural design of a device or device component (e.g., blade design, loading).
    • Substructure: Base/foundation of a device (e.g., pile, floating substructure).


    • Deployment: Installation of a device. 
    • Maintenance: Work done on a device after it is operational. 
    • Condition Monitoring: Monitoring the health of a device while in operation. 
    • Safety and Security: Safety and protection of personnel and assets during the life cycle of the project.
    • Survivability: How a device survives in the ocean (e.g., planned lifespan, fatigue studies).
      • Debris: Floating or submerged objects that may pose a threat to the survivability of a device.
      • Ice: Movement of ice in various forms that may pose a threat to the survivability of a device.
    • Decommissioning: Removal of a device at the end of its lifespan.


    • Cost Assessment: Analysis of a device's cost, economic feasibility, or other cost-related factors (e.g., techno-economic assessments, cost optimization).
    • Manufacturing: Descriptions of manufacturing process or costs. 
    • Alternative Markets: Markets and potential applications for marine energy other than commercial electricity generation. 
    • Standards: International or country standards related to marine energy. 
    • Supply Chain: Network of suppliers used to produce a specific device.

    Signature Projects 


    AIS: Automatic Identification System
    BOEM: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
    DOE: United States Department of Energy
    EMF: Electromagnetic Field
    FAD: Fish Aggregating Device
    GIS: Geographic Information Service
    IEA: International Energy Agency
    kW: Kilowatt
    LCA: Life Cycle Assessment
    LCOE: Levelized Cost of Energy
    MHK: Marine and Hydrokinetic
    MRE: Marine Renewable Energy
    MSP: Marine Spatial Planning
    MW: Megawatt
    NOAA: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
    NREL: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    OES: Ocean Energy Systems
    ORE: Ocean Renewable Energy
    OTEC: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    OWC: Oscillating Water Column
    PNNL: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    PRO: Pressure-Retarded Osmosis
    RED: Reverse Electrodialysis
    SEA: Strategic Environmental Assessment
    SNL: Sandia National Laboratories
    WEC: Wave Energy Converter