Greenhouse gas emissions associated with power generation from fossil fuel combustion account for 25% of global emissions and, thus, contribute greatly to climate change. Renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, have reached a mature stage, with costs aligning with those of fossil fuel-derived power but suffer from the challenge of intermittency due to the variability of wind and sunlight. This study aims to explore the viability of salinity gradient power, or “blue energy”, as a clean, renewable source of uninterrupted, base-load power generation. Harnessing the salinity gradient energy from river estuaries worldwide could meet a substantial portion of the global electricity demand (approximately 7%). Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are more prominent technologies for blue energy harvesting, whereas thermo-osmotic energy conversion (TOEC) is emerging with new promise. This review scrutinizes the obstacles encountered in developing osmotic power generation using membrane-based methods and presents potential solutions to overcome challenges in practical applications. While certain strategies have shown promise in addressing some of these obstacles, further research is still required to enhance the energy efficiency and feasibility of membrane-based processes, enabling their large-scale implementation in osmotic energy harvesting.