This paper summarizes the general concepts and current state-of-the-art for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Systems, a large-scale solar energy driven resource. Specifically, it focuses on the varied material needs for such power plants. Each of the system’s major components (turbine, heat exchanger, ocean platform or hull, and ocean water delivery system) is discussed with respect to material requirements (type and magnitude) needed for the various designs. The heat exchangers are considered to be the key power plant components and various designs and material choices are presented. Also, the impact on material resources for large-scale implementation of such systems is considered.