Horizontal-axis tidal turbines (HATTs) have the acknowledged potential to extract a large amount of green renewable energy from ocean tides. Among these, bidirectional HATTs (BHATTs) with centrosymmetric hydrofoils have advantages in terms of reliability and maintenance cost. To improve the performance of BHATTs, this paper investigates the influence of different passive flow control devices (PFCDs), such as wing fences, winglets, and squealers, on the performance of the BHATT. To the end, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model with a k-ω SST model and a sliding mesh method was applied to simulate a 18 m diameter BHATT. The numerical framework was validated using two experiments. The mesh convergence was tested. The results show that the wing fences can effectively suppress the spanwise flow above the suction surface of blades, although they cannot improve the BHATT performance. To inhibit the wingtip vortices and enhance the torque of the rotor, a series of centrosymmetric winglets are designed and optimized. The optimal BHATT can produce up to 2.3% more energy at design tip speed ratio (TSR).