Renewable energy provides an effective solution to the problem existing between energy and environmental protection. Tidal energy has great potential as a form of renewable energy. Tidal current generation (TCG) technology is the earliest renewable energy power generation technology. The advancement of science and technology has led to TCG rapidly developing since its emergence in the last century. This paper investigates the development of TCG in recent years based on the key components of TCG systems, both in terms of tidal energy harvesting research and power generation unit research. A summary of tidal energy harvesting is presented, investigating the main tidal energy harvesting units currently available. In addition, research on generators and generator control is summarized. Lastly, a comparison between horizontal and vertical axis turbines is carried out, and predictions are made about the future trends in TCG development. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research status and research methods of key components in tidal energy power generation technology and to provide insight into the research of tidal energy-related technologies.