With the continuous development of society and economy, people’s demand for electric energy is increasing. The low-carbon and energy-saving technologies of renewable energy especially wave energy have become the focus of current researches. Considering the increasingly serious energy problems, a wave energy converter (WEC) is proposed based on Halbach permanent magnetic array, which increases the output performance. The equivalent magnetic circuit model of the WEC is established. The static magnetic field modeling and structural parameters optimal permanent of the WEC are performed on this theoretical. Theoretical studies have found that the optimal permanent magnet thickness ratios for Halbach permanent magnet array structures is 0.6, and the ratio of permanent magnet to coil radial ratio is 0.7. The coil winding form and rectifying circuit of the WEC were designed. The WEC equivalent magnetic circuit model was verified by COMSOL Multiphysics finite element software, and the open circuit voltages of WEC was obtained. If the WEC moves at a speed of 0.1 m/s, the coil voltage can reach about 113 V after simulation. According to the testing requirements of the WEC, a test platform was built. The Halbach permanent magnet array structures greatly enhances the wave energy collection of WEC.