Marine current energy is an abundant renewable energy resource. Marine current turbines (MCTs) can convert the kinetic energy of marine currents into electrical energy. However, the variations in the marine currents are violent and complex. These characteristics will be reflected in the variation in the operating condition of MCTs, thus interfering with normal diagnosis for the high-resistance connection (HRC). The HRC can be caused by damaged connections between device components that are easily made due to the harsh marine environment. To diagnose HRC in MCT, an inequality indicator is proposed to quantify the current imbalance caused by HRC. The inequality indicator is defined based on the arithmetic–geometric mean inequality and can identify slight current imbalances in the early stages of HRC. The inequality indicator is robust to the variable operating conditions of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) in the MCT. Experimental results show that the inequality indicator can be used to effectively diagnose HRC in the MCT with 100% accuracy. This research will help maintain the health condition of the MCTs and provide some ideas for diagnosis in MCTs. Moreover, the inequality indicator may provide a different approach to the analysis for other faults that can lead to a current imbalance.