An underwater profiler is one of the popular platforms for ocean observation. Due to energy limitations, conventional underwater vehicles have a short life span, which cannot meet the needs of long-term ocean exploration. Therefore, there is a growing interest in using ocean energy such as ocean thermal energy and wave energy for driving. This study aimed to investigate an energy-saving and ocean thermal energy (OTE)-powered buoyancy driving system of the ocean profiler. The purpose of this study was to explore an ocean profiler buoyancy driving system powered by ocean thermal energy (OTE). According to the seawater profile temperature gradient, an OTE-powered electro-hydraulic control system was designed, and the dynamic characteristics of this system are simulated and analyzed by using the power bonding diagram method. Based on the results conducted from lake tests, this profiler possesses the self-driving capability for using OTE perfectly. This research can provide important guidance for the design of the buoyancy drive system of underwater vehicles.