Tidal energy is regarded as one of the most promising modes of renewable energy generation owing to its environmentally friendliness and predictability. Tidal energy system modelling and assessment also plays a crucial role in leading to the choice of power capacity expansion by demonstrating different strategies in meeting environmental targets and future demands while maintaining and broadening the understanding of tidal energy development. This work is aimed at developing a systematic literature review of the different modelling methods employed in optimizing the output of tidal energy using a marine current turbine system. An analysis is also carried out based on the techniques adopted in modelling and simulation of tidal energy. During the analysis of simulation models, two major objectives were discovered, which are the determination of performance and dynamic loads under varying operating conditions and the development of a speed-dependent turbine operation control system. Hence, it is very necessary and imperative to identify a strategy between the precision of the simulation model and the speed of the loop control. The work is useful to tidal power developers, tidal energy scientist and engineers in evaluating and assessing key techniques and tools necessary for tidal energy generation.