Enabling Future Arrays in Tidal (EnFAIT) is an EU Horizon 2020 flagship tidal energy project. It aims to demonstrate the development, operation and decommissioning of the world’s largest tidal array (six turbines), over a five-year period, to prove a cost reduction pathway for tidal energy and confirm that it can be cost competitive with other forms of renewable energy. To determine the optimal site layout and spacing between turbines within a tidal array, it is essential to accurately characterise tidal turbine wakes and their effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of tidal turbine wake modelling methods, with an overview of the relevant fundamental theories. Numerical and physical modelling research completed by both academia and industry are considered to provide an overview of the contemporary understanding in this area. The scalability of single device modelling techniques to an array situation is discussed, particularly with respect to wake interactions.