In this paper we present a high resolution assessment of the wave energy resources in the Mediterranean. The energy resources are evaluated through of a numerical simulation performed on the entire Mediterranean basin for the period 2001–2010 using a third generation ocean wave model. The model results are extensively validated against most of the available wave buoy and satellite altimeter data. Starting from the model results a detailed analysis of wave energy availability in the Mediterranean Sea is carried out. The western Sardinia coast and the Sicily Channel are found to be among the most productive areas in the whole Mediterranean. Simulation results show the presence of significant spatial variations of wave power availability even on relatively small spatial scales along these two coastlines. For a number of selected locations in these two areas we present an in-depth investigation of the distribution of wave energy among wave heights, periods and directions. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of wave energy potential are also analyzed and discussed.