The renewable energy has been investigated as an alternative resource to resolve the demanding consumption of conventional hydrocarbon energy, to minimize the environmental impact, and to secure the sustainability for decades. The exploitation of renewables is often hampered due to the intermittence, site-dependency, and the lack of engineering experiences. The objective of this paper is to introduce the characteristics of various renewable energies and to examine the roles for geotechnical engineers. Beginning with the synopsis of worldwide energy consumption, an overview is presented for renewable energy sources of air, water, heat and organics in terms of associated technologies and issues related to geotechnology. The compressed air energy storage system related to geomaterials is introduced, and the challenges that may need to be advanced by geotechnology are proposed. This paper shows that Optimized site characterization, advanced geotechnical tools, and real-time monitoring systems are necessary for the geotechnical construction of renewable energy systems.