In this study, a time-domain numerical method based on three-dimensional potential flow was developed to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of an inclined oscillating-water-column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). A finite element method was applied to solve the potential flow around and inside the OWC chamber. A turbine–chamber interaction was considered to take into account the pressure drop inside the OWC chamber, which is a nonlinear function of airflow speed via turbine operation. The instantaneous pressure drop was updated on the free-surface boundary condition inside the chamber in the time-domain to account for the coupling effect between the turbine and the chamber. The present numerical method was verified by comparing it with the model test results. The hydrodynamic characteristics of an inclined OWC chamber in terms of potential flow, such as the water column motion and the three-dimensional flow distribution around the chamber, were investigated. In terms of hydrodynamic performance, the energy conversion efficiency of the chamber showed a nonlinear response characteristic dependent on the incident wave height. In addition, numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the relationship between the main geometric parameters and the hydrodynamic response of the inclined OWC chamber.