Renewable energies play a fundamental role within the current political and social framework for minimizing the impacts of climate change. The ocean has a vast potential for generating energy and therefore, the marine renewable energies are included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These energies include wave, tidal, marine currents, ocean thermal, and osmotic. Moreover, it can also be included wind, solar, geothermal and biomass powers, which their main use is onshore, but in the near future their use at sea may be considered. The manuscript starts with a state-of-the-art review of the abovementioned marine renewable energy resources worldwide. The paper continues with a case study focused on the Spanish coast, divided into six regions: (I) Cantabrian, (II) Galician, (III) South Atlantic, (IV) Canary Islands, (V) Southern Mediterranean, and (VI) Northern Mediterranean. The results show that: (1) areas I and II are suitable for offshore wind, wave and biomass; (2) areas III and V are suitable for offshore wind, marine current and offshore solar; area IV is suitable for offshore wind, ocean wave and offshore solar; (3) and area VI is suitable for offshore wind, osmotic and offshore solar. This analysis can help politicians and technicians to plan the use of these resources in Spain.
This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Wind Farms.