Large-scale deployment of tidal turbine arrays are likely to require more than merely replicating individual turbines from pilot projects. Future tidal turbine arrays must be cost-effective and reliable, but also guided by environmental and societal priorities. This range of holistic considerations may increase the likelihood for tidal energy projects to be accepted and ensure that they are sustainable. This research explores potential future design scenarios for utility-scale turbine arrays that could overcome limitations of existing concepts, particularly societal concerns about new uses of ocean spaces. Incorporating holistic considerations at an early stage is necessary to ensure that tidal energy has a practical, as well as technical, potential to contribute to energy needs.